Around AD 1100, the Chinese came up with a revolutionary tool to help people navigate the unknown terrain: the practical compass. Prior to that, humanity relied on various other methods to determine the four cardinal directions, without the aid of a compass.
You go on a camping trip in a remote patch of the Maryland woods. You get lost. You walk around. You walk around some more, looking to get out of the brambles.
Navigation is the process of finding one’s present position and then determining the best route to follow to reach a distant goal. We do that today every time we get into our car and pull out of the driveway. Succesful land navigation requires a map and a compass and most importantly, knowledge to use these survival tools.